Conservation is defined as the planning and management of resources so as to secure their wide use and continuity of supply while maintaining and or enhancing their quality, value and diversity. Sustainable forestry management is the stewardship and use of forests and forest lands is a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biological diversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfill, now and in future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national and global levels, and that does not cause damage on other ecosystems (FAO 2000). While sustainable development is the conservation and management of the natural resources base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources is environmentally viable and socially acceptable manner.
The management of forest resources in Uganda has evolved since the last century from timber-oriented exploitation to a more people-centred, multiple-use management of forest resources. However, the current feature of Uganda’s forests are characterized by the following: high population pressures and associated forest degradation; diversity of ecosystems; fragile environments; high incidences of poverty and forest dependence of local people; high rates of fuelwood removals, socio-economic relevance ; complex management needs; frequent fires, pests and diseases particularly in plantation forests; and yet the natural forests are centers of biodiversity and origin of many important food crops. There is also inadequate data and understanding of the forests and their component.